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Doing business in Spain and the cultural implications

A deep-dive into the cultural factor when doing business in Spain

A mid-century meeting room with several people each with a different animal head
Interpersonal relationship is the bedrock of business

Boasting a robust population of over 47 million and a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of approximately $1.4 trillion, Spain emerges as one of the most economically thriving nations within the European Union. As a result, the nation offers immense potential for foreign companies seeking to diversify and augment their operations in the country. Nevertheless, the successful navigation of business in Spain necessitates an insightful understanding of its cultural peculiarities, norms, values, and business etiquettes. This elaborate discourse aims to provide a thorough analysis of the cultural determinants that govern business operations in Spain, focusing on major elements like communication styles, hierarchical perceptions, and protocols. It is essential for international corporations to comprehend these nuances in order to forge strong alliances and prosper within the Spanish market.

1. The Bedrock of Relationships

Spain's business culture places significant emphasis on the cultivation of close-knit interpersonal relationships as a cornerstone for successful commercial transactions. Unlike some societies where deals are sealed in a brisk manner, doing business in Spain might involve more prolonged engagements, necessitating the gradual establishment of familiarity and trust prior to formal negotiations. Hastening business conversations prematurely can often prove to be counterproductive.

This crucial aspect of Spanish business culture is deeply rooted in the country's inherently collectivist ethos, which prioritizes collective solidarity above individual interests. Furthermore, the Spanish concept of 'simpatía' emphasizes the importance of harmony and positivity in interpersonal interactions, seeking to circumvent any potential conflicts. As such, the nurturing of strong relationships and the fostering of peaceful coexistence is vital.

In a practical context, this implies the necessity to personally engage with business contacts, fostering rapport through casual conversations and social interactions before venturing into business-related discussions. Sharing meals serves as an excellent platform for establishing commonality. Business meetings are not confined strictly to professional topics; they also provide an avenue for updating one another on familial matters and recent news. Understanding this norm is vital for foreign companies to effectively engage with their Spanish counterparts and schedule meetings that facilitate relationship building.

2. The Concept of 'Saving Face'

Communication within the Spanish business sphere is characterized by a high-context, indirect, and elaborate approach, a stark contrast to the more straightforward style prevalent in other Western cultures. Open criticism or actions that potentially cause embarrassment are considered socially unacceptable, with an emphasis on 'saving face' and maintaining a harmonious atmosphere.

These cultural preferences significantly influence business interactions. Spanish negotiations involve vibrant discussions and debates, but overt confrontation or aggression are considered inappropriate and a red flag. Foreign business individuals should tactfully articulate disagreements, abstain from unambiguous language, and strive for consensus rather than a win-lose outcome.

Interactions are often replete with ambiguous phrases like 'we'll see' or 'let's discuss further', replacing direct affirmations or denials. Straightforward requests and hasty decisions without sufficient consultation are frowned upon as they may lead to a loss of face. The most effective approach to communication within the Spanish business landscape involves indulging in nuanced, elaborate dialogues that help preserve face, avoiding confrontations and promoting collective agreement.

3. Hierarchy, Protocol, and the Role of Gender

Hierarchy holds a significant place in Spanish business culture, with due respect accorded to age, status, qualifications, and social connections. The most senior individual often steers the meeting, setting the agenda and the tone. Formal introductions, with surnames and professional titles, are standard until contacts suggest a more informal approach.

Despite a trend towards egalitarianism, traditional gender roles continue to persist in Spanish society. Business meetings, particularly at senior levels, are largely dominated by males. Female foreign professionals may encounter chivalrous gestures from male counterparts. It is crucial for these female expatriates to adopt a decisive and authoritative demeanor while brokering deals or leading local teams in Spain.

A mid-century office setting with pistacho walls and a group of different animals seating around the table
Hierarchy holds a strong role in Spanish culture

4. Time Management

Spain's perception of timekeeping leans towards a relaxed approach, distinguishing it from the stricter time discipline of some Northern European cultures. While punctuality is appreciated, tardiness of 10 or 15 minutes is generally tolerable. Deadlines are considered as flexible guidelines rather than strict boundaries, and plans often evolve to accommodate shifting priorities.

However, this cultural inclination towards a flexible approach to timekeeping is gradually being redefined. Large multinational corporations like Santander, Zara, and Telefonica, are infusing a more punctual and urgent sense of time management into the Spanish business culture as they increasingly align with global business timetables.

5. Business Meals, Gifts, and Work-Life Balance

In Spain, sharing a meal serves as an integral part of nurturing business relationships. Lunches and dinners often encompass a blend of personal and professional conversations, providing a platform to diplomatically navigate sensitive topics. Foreign business individuals should appreciate this tradition and participate fully, sampling various dishes and tactfully engaging in diverse discussions.

In Spanish business culture, exchanging gifts solidifies established relationships. Ideal presents could range from wine, spirits, cheese, ham, and olive oil, to items emblematic of the foreigner's home country. The emphasis should be on quality, reflecting good taste and sophistication.

The Spanish work-life balance incorporates long working hours with an inherent cultural expectation of balancing work with quality leisure time. Foreign employers need to respect this cultural nuance and create an environment that promotes social interactions among staff while also respecting the local work-life balance norms.


To thrive in the Spanish market, foreign companies need to comprehend and adapt to Spain's distinctive business culture. This culture values close personal relationships, nuanced communication, respect for hierarchy and procedure, moderately relaxed time management, and balanced lifestyles. By being sensitive to these unwritten norms and pacing their business discussions appropriately, foreign companies can successfully leverage the opportunities in the Spanish market.


At iBerotech, we have over a decade of experience working with financial services organizations while navigating the challenges of the Spain market, successfully launching business operations in the Spanish fintech ecosystem.


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